Friday, January 14, 2011

Grassland ecosystem

- Mohan Kumar M

Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae) and other herbaceous (non-woody) plants (forbs). However, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found. Grasslands occur naturally on all continents except Antarctica. In temperate latitudes, such as northwest Europe, grasslands are dominated by perennial species, where as in warmer climates annual species form a greater component of the vegetation.

Grasslands are found in most terrestrial climates. Grassland vegetation can vary in height from very short, as in chalk downland where the vegetation may be less than 30 cm (12 in) high, to quite tall, as in the case of North American tall grass prairie, South American grasslands and African savanna. Woody plants, shrubs or trees, may occur on some grasslands - forming savannas, scrubby grassland or semi-wooded grassland, such as the African savannas or the Iberian dehesa. Such grasslands are sometimes referred to as wood-pasture or woodland.

Grasslands cover nearly fifty percent of the land surface of the continent of Africa. While grasslands in general support diverse wildlife, given the lack of hiding places for predators, the African Savanna regions support a much greater diversity in wildlife than do temperate grasslands. - cite_note-2

The appearance of mountains in the western United States during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, a period of some 25 million years, created a continental climate favorable to the evolution of grasslands. Existing forest biomes declined, and grasslands became much more widespread. Following the Pleistocene Ice Ages, grasslands expanded in range in the hotter, drier climates, and began to become the dominant land feature worldwide. - cite_note-autogenerated1-1

As flowering plants, grasses grow in great concentrations in climates where annual rainfall ranges between 500 and 900 mm (20 and 35 in). The root systems of perennial grasses and forbs form complex mats that hold the soil in place. Mites, insect larvae, nematodes and earthworms inhabit deep soil, which can reach 6 metres (20 ft) underground in undisturbed grasslands on the richest soils of the world. These invertebrates, along with symbiotic fungi, extend the root systems, break apart hard soil, enrich it with urea and other natural fertilizers, trap minerals and water and promote growth. Some types of fungi make the plants more resistant to insect and microbial attacks.


Natural grasslands primarily occur in regions that receive between 500 and 900 mm (20 and 35 in) of rain per year, as compared with deserts, which receive less than 250 mm (9.8 in) and tropical rainforests, which receive more than 2,000 mm (79 in). - cite_note-autogenerated1-1

Anthropogenic grasslands often occur in much higher rainfall zones, as high as 200 cm (79 in) annual rainfall. Grassland can exist naturally in areas with higher rainfall when other factors prevent the growth of forests, such as in serpentine barrens, where minerals in the soil inhibit most plants from growing.

Average daily temperatures range between -20 and 30 °C. - cite_note-4 Temperate grasslands have cold winters and warm summers with rain or some

Grassland biodiversity and conservation

Grasslands dominated by unsown wild-plant communities ("unimproved grasslands") can be called either natural or 'semi-natural' habitats. The majority of grasslands in temperate climates are 'semi-natural'. Although their plant communities are natural, their maintenance depends upon anthropogenic activities such as low-intensity farming, which maintains these grasslands through grazing and cutting regimes. These grasslands contain many species of wild plants - grasses, sedges, rushes and herbs - 25 or more speerican prairie grasslands or lowland wildflower meadows in the UK are now rare and their associated wild flora equally threatened. Associated with the wild-plant diversity of the "unimproved" grasslands is usually a rich invertebrate fauna; also there are many species of birds that are grassland "specialists", such as the snipe and the Great Bustard. Agriculturally improved grasslands, which dominate modern intensive agricultural landscapes, are usually poor in wild plant species due to the original diversity of plants having been destroyed by cultivation, the original wild-plant communities having been replaced by sown monocultures of cultivated varieties of grasses and clovers, such as Perennial ryegrass and White Clover. In many parts of the world "unimproved" grasslands are one of the most threatened habitats, and a target for acquisition by wildlife conservation groups or for special grants to landowners who are encouraged to manage them appropriately.

Grasslands are of vital importance for raising livestock for human consumption and for milk and other dairy products.

Grassland vegetation remains dominant in a particular area usually due to grazing, cutting, or natural or manmade fires, all discouraging colonisation by and survival of tree and shrub seedlings. Some of the world's largest expanses of grassland are found in African savanna, and these are maintained by wild herbivores as well as by nomadic pastoralists and their cattle, sheep or goats.

Grasslands may occur naturally or as the result of human activity. Grasslands created and maintained by human activity are called anthropogenic grasslands. Hunting peoples around the world often set regular fires to maintain and extend grasslands, and prevent fire-intolerant trees and shrubs from taking hold. The tall grass prairies in the American Midwest may have been extended eastward into Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio by human agency. Much grassland in northwest Europe developed after the Neolithic Period, when people gradually cleared the forest to create areas for raising their livestock.

Types of grassland

Tropical and subtropical grasslands

These grasslands are classified with tropical and subtropical savannas and shrublands as the tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. Notable tropical and subtropical grasslands include the LlanosSouth America. grasslands of northern

Temperate grasslands

Mid-latitude grasslands, including the Prairie of North America, the Pampa of Argentina, calcareous downland, and the steppes of Europe. They are classified with temperate savannas and shrublands as the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. Temperate grasslands are the home to many large herbivores, such as bison, gazelles, zebras, rhinoceroses, and wild horses. Carnivores like lions, wolves and cheetahs and leopards are also found in temperate grasslands. Other animals of this region include: deer, prairie dogs, mice, jack rabbits, skunks, coyotes, snakes, fox, owls, badgers, blackbirds (both Old and New World varieties), grasshoppers, meadowlarks, sparrows, quails, hawks and hyenas.

Flooded grasslands

Grasslands that are flooded seasonally or year-round, like the Everglades of Florida or the Pantanal of Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. They are classified with flooded savannas as the flooded grasslands and savannas biome and occur mostly in the tropics and subtropics. In India the Gangetic plains represent flooded grassland. Indian One horned Rhinoceros and Indian Wild buffalo are the typical representatives of this ecosystem.

Montane grasslands

High-altitude grasslands located on high mountain ranges around the world, like the Páramo of the Andes Mountains. They are part of the montane grasslands and shrublands biome, and also constitute tundra. Similar to montane grasslands, arctic tundraPleistoceneice ages, a polar grassland known as steppe-tundra occupied large areas of the Northern hemisphere. In India you find them up the Western Ghats in the Nigiries. can have grasses, but high soil moisture means that few tundras are grass-dominated today. However, during the

Xeric grasslands

Also called desert grasslands, these are sparse grasslands located in deserts and xeric shrublands ecoregions.


Grassland in all its form supports a vast variety of mammals, reptiles, birds, and insects. Typical large mammals include the Blue Wildebeest, American Bison, Giant Anteater, Przewalski's Horse , in India the black buck, Indian Gazzele and Nilgai.

There is evidence for grassland being much the product of animal behaviour and movement; some examples include migratory herds of antelope trampling vegetation and African Bush Elephants eating Acacia saplings before the plant has a chance to grow into a mature tree.

Regaining Paradise

: Towards a Fossil Fuel Free Society

T. Vijayendra

The only possible paradise that we know for real is Planet Earth. The Human species started the process of losing it by exploiting their own kind and exploiting nature. The former being conspicuous, met with dissent from time to time. The accumulated scars of the latter began to appear only in the last couple of centuries. Presently, the extent and intensity of the phenomenon is such that it now endangers all life on earth.

This book is about regaining this paradise. Hence it is about ending exploitation of man by man and exploitation of nature by man. The two being inseparable, neither can be achieved in isolation.

This book is about humility. It is about humility to accept we are part of all forms that belong here; to accept coexistence; to accept that science is not meant to conquer nature or exploit it, but can only assist us to live in harmony with nature by accepting and adapting to her ways.

This book is about struggles. It is about struggles to stop the exploitation of man and of nature.

And finally this book is about rebuilding communities. Being a social species, our survival is dependent on cooperation. This is possible only when there is individual freedom and mutual respect.


The world is going through a major crisis. Many have called it the biggest crisis after the 1929 depression. Several factors have come together to herald this crisis.

First is environment degradation, which has now reached a crisis point in the shape of global warming. Every one agrees that it is a very serious crisis. If carbon emissions continue at present levels, then a time will come when the tipping point will occur. That is, reversals will not be possible and global warming itself will create more global warming. No one knows when such a point may be reached. Some say it has already occurred; some give it 10, 20, 50 or 100 years.

The second factor is peak oil, peak gas and peaking of several mineral resources. Peaking means that after the particular point has been reached, production will only keep on falling. The reason being, there is only a finite quantity of these minerals and when half of it is taken out, the production starts falling. Often because, the cost of extracting from leftover, lower grade, remnant sources, is much higher in terms of energy and money.

The third is the economic crisis which began in the U.S.A. with the housing crisis in September 2007. It culminated in the financial melt down of September 2008.

Broadly, there is no disagreement on the above facts. The differences are in the responses. The response of the government and the ruling class follow a particular trend. Primarily all these crises are not considered together. Each is treated separately. The financial crisis is tackled by a bail out kind of response. Global warming is treated by international agreements of reducing emissions. The response to peak oil and peak gas is to opt for coal and nuclear energy, supplemented by alternatives like solar, wind, bio fuel etc.

Most people are aware of the different aspects of this crisis in a piecemeal manner. Thus for the economic crisis, people seek job security. They hope that these international agreements will manage to tackle global warming. While many oppose coal and nuclear based energy sources, they all hope that either alternative like solar, wind etc. will happen or some new technological innovation will solve the entire problem.

This book addresses these issues in a different manner. One cannot rule out the possibility that this approach is wrong; that any of the above approaches may prove right; or that, the future being unpredictable, problems may be addressed in an altogether new manner.

All the same, based on study and concern for the future, this book outlines a different approach. First, in the opinion of the author, this is the most unprecedented crisis in human history.

For the last 10,000 years or so, human society has experienced an increase in available energy through technological innovations and exploitation of man by man and exploitation of nature. This energy availability kept on increasing. And, in the last 200 years of industrial revolution it has increased enormously. The author believes that for the first time in human history we will face a decrease in available energy.

Realistically speaking, one cannot estimate when exactly, global warming will reach its tipping point. Peak oil and the related economic crisis may actually reduce emission. It is possible that global warming will be arrested; even though effects of the past “warming” will continue to create problems. The real solution then will be to learn to live with reduced levels of energy.

There are two kinds of challenges involved. Society cannot go back in time from its modern or present sensibilities. The challenge is how to have a modern society with reduced energy. A fossil fuel free society implies a drastic reduction of available energy use for mankind. It makes the present social system of capitalism unviable; not implying we go back to Stone Age! More than half the energy used in the present system is irrational. The war industry, tobacco, narcotics, alcohol, much of the medical industry, a large portion of the finance industry, bureaucracy etc are totally unnecessary. The alternative sources of energy would be sufficient for this reduced need of energy. It could still allow for man to live comfortably with modern sensibilities.

The second and more immediate problem is that the ruling classes are not going to give up voluntarily. People all over the world are struggling to save their livelihood, land, water and air from the sharks of the industry. The agents of change, therefore, will be organised people who are carrying out these struggles. People will not agree to a solution where in they continue to be poor, oppressed and exploited.

So the final solution may lie in reduced and equitable access to energy for all. Finally, human society has encroached on nature much beyond its share at the cost of other living beings. Human society will have to restore these resources so that all forms of life can survive. Otherwise, human society itself will not survive.

This book is in three parts. The first, ‘The party is over’ describes the nature of the problem; the second, ‘Where do we want to go?’ describes a vision of the future; and the third is, ‘What then should we do?’ In it the strategy proposed is: 1. Halt the juggernaut of dying capitalism - coal based power plants, huge hydro-power plants, sponge iron plants, new mining leases etc. This can be done only through local people's organisations. 2. Build regional coalitions of people's organisation to plan and build a new society. To begin with, work towards assured alternative fossil fuel free livelihoods for every one.

The objective of the book is primarily to provide educational material for activists and non-professionals. The book puts forward the views and action plans in a straightforward, simple and cogent form, without meandering into academic debates. While I checked with professional colleagues that no gross error has occurred in the data presented I have avoided giving references. The references provided at the end of the book are more in the nature of resources.

About the Author

T. Vijayendra (1943- ) is a B. Tech. (Electronics) from I.I.T. Kharagpur (1966). Over the past four decades, his work with the trade union movements, alternative journalism, libraries, bookshops, publishing, socio-political research, health, education, and environment have given him unique insights into India’s people and problems. His writings directed towards activist education are published regularly in the weekly journal Frontier. He lives on an organic farm in the Western Ghats.

More books by the author

The Losers Shall Inherit the World, 2009, English

Environment awareness and Media

- Subhash Chandra

In the recent days media plays a significant role in reaching out to the common man. News in any form makes a huge impact, which will leave people discussing its pros and cons of it.
Issues ranging from politics, social, development, entertainment and culture any thing that makes a news is getting its due.

The question arises what is a media ? What is the role it plays for the better of the society?
Media is voice of the society, as it reflects every happenings. Its duty is to act as a watchdog of the constitution and society.

Right from clearing the garbage in front of your house, the media ensures happenings at the Ratrapathi Bhavan and Prime Minister's office get a coverage. Indian democracy has always believed that media assumes a crucial role in shaping the society. Though the Constitution does not confer a special status to media, it has earned itself a reputation as fourth estate, the fourth pillar of the Society. Henceforth its role is not restricted to socio-political issues, but also to the crucial subjects like environment.

With the world going through the critical changes like ozone layer depletion and global warming, the media has a greater role in exploring and tracing the root of the causes along with educating the society.

Awareness and education being vital in environment conservation, media is the best form to achieve this. The 21st century has diversified the media from the conventional newspapers and radio. Apart from the electronic media like television, the age of information technology has ushered in a new revolution like news related websites, blogs and twitters. These are making a much needed difference in their own way to the society.

Environment and media in a way share a bondage with each other. The issues concerning environment are crucial in nature offering food for thought. In a similar manner, media too has played a several signficant role in creating movement and ediucating mass.

For instance, the recent BT brinjal movement initiated by several NGOs is kept alive by the frequent media reports especially the regional media. The matter concerning with the livelyhood of rural India and conservation of our own brinjal diversity has now become a topic of every media. Several newspaper reports on the unknown danger has transformed this issue into mass movement sparkling the debate across the country.

The movement to save our own Bhadra river at Kudremukha was initiated following several newspaper reports including a few from Deccan Herald where some of the reports described the horrors of the disaster caused by KIOCL in the region. The fallout of this lead to a movement where several well known personalities like Poornachandra Tejeswi participated and ensured that the mining giant stopped their activities. One should not forget about the mining probe take up by Lokayukta at Bellary is a result of media report.

Several ecological disasters in the form of development and projects which would have affected the country's biodiversity have been averted due to alert media in the country. Our own Tadadi thermal power project planned at Western Ghats in Uttara Kannada is the best example for this.
Not only to human beings even the animals which were victims of habitat loss and anthropogenic pressure and poaching have received the much required attention by Judiciary and the Government following media reports. For instance a report in Deccan Herald regarding the increasing death of elephants was sufficient for the High Court to initiate a suo moto petition, which resulted in directions to the State to form a task force to prevent death of jumbos and avoid human- elephant conflict.

Similarly, a report in Indian Express and The Times of India regarding the death of tigers in Sariska tiger reserve and at Ranathambore ensured more stress by the government to conserve the big cat.

The recent episode of gangetic gharials going extinct was reported by DNA. The Madras Crocodile bank came to its rescue only based on this report.

The power of the media helps in tackling environment issues by reaching out to all section of the people both urban and rural, rich and poor, literate and illiterate by creating awareness, campaigns, mobilising public opinions and assuming a pro active role of informing people about the right steps to conserve the environment.

However there is a limitation to this as the over use of it might lead to the overkill of the issue, however good it is for the matter. The media too must be aware of its ethics, and responsibilities to the society and should avoid going for exclusivity when it concerns the society at large so that the dilution of the issue be avoided.


Tuesday, January 11, 2011

ಅಕ್ರಮ ಗಣಿ ಕಂಡರೂ ನಾವು ಯಾಕೆ ಕುರುಡರು?

ಅಕ್ರಮ ಗಣಿ ಕಂಡರೂ ನಾವು ಯಾಕೆ ಕುರುಡರು?
ತಿಪಟೂರು ಕೃಷ್ಣ

ತನ್ನ ಗರ್ಭದಲ್ಲಿ ಅಪಾರ ಸಂಪತ್ತನ್ನು ತುಂಬಿಕೊಂಡಿರುವ ನಮ್ಮ ಚೆಲುವ ಕನ್ನಡನಾಡಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಕಳೆದ ಏಳೆಂಟು ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ನಿರಂತರವಾಗಿ, ನಿರ್ಭಯವಾಗಿ ಹಾಗೂ ನಿರಾತಂಕವಾಗಿ ಗಣಿಗಾರಿಕೆ ನಡೆಯುತ್ತಿದೆ. ಮುಂದೆಯೂ ನಡೆಯುತ್ತದೆ. ರಾಜ್ಯದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ರೈತರ ಕೃಷಿ ಭೂಮಿ, ಕಂದಾಯ ಭೂಮಿ, ಗೋಮಾಳ, ಖರಾಬು, ಸಾಮಾಜಿಕ ಹಾಗೂ ಮೀಸಲು ಅರಣ್ಯ ಪ್ರದೇಶಗಳು ಹಾಡು ಹಗಲೇ ಲೂಟಿಯಾದರೂ, ಆಗುತ್ತಿದ್ದರೂ ನಮ್ಮ ಪರಿಸರವಾದಿಗಳು, ಹಿತಚಿಂತಕರು, ಸಾಹಿತಿಗಳು, ರೈತ ಮುಖಂಡರು, ರಾಜಕಾರಣಿಗಳು, ಅಧಿಕಾರಿಗಳು ಕೊನೆಗೆ ಪತ್ರಕರ್ತರೂ ತೆಪ್ಪಗಿದ್ದು ಬಿಟ್ಟರು.

ರಾಜ್ಯದ ಹಕ್ಕುದಾರ ಕನ್ನಡಿಗ ಒಬ್ಬ ರೈತ ಗಾಡಿಯ ನೇಗಿಲಿಗೋ, ಮನೆಯ ತೊಲೆಗೋ ಒಂದು ಮರಕಡಿದರೆ ಗಂಡಸರಂತೆ ಮೀಸೆ ತಿರುವಿ ಆತನ ಮೇಲೆ ಅರಣ್ಯ ಖಾಯಿದೆಯಡಿ ಪ್ರಕರಣ ದಾಖಲಿಸಿ, ಕಟಕಟೆ ಹತ್ತಿಸುವ ಅಧಿಕಾರಿಗಳು ತಮ್ಮ ಎದುರಿಗೇ ನೂರಾರು ಮರಗಳನ್ನು ಕಡಿದು ನಿರ್ಭಯವಾಗಿ ಗಣಿಗಾರಿಕೆ ನಡೆಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದರೂ ಮೂಖರಂತೆ ನಿಂತು, ಅಸಹಾಯಕತೆ ತೋರುತ್ತಿದ್ದಾರೆ.

ಇತ್ತೀಚೆಗೆ ರಾಜ್ಯಾದ್ಯಂತ ಅಕ್ರಮ ಗಣಿಗಾರಿಕೆ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಭಾರೀ ಚರ್ಚೆಗಳು, ವಾದ ವಿವಾದಗಳು, ಗಲಭೆಗಳು ನಡೆಯುತ್ತಿದ್ದರೂ ಯಾವುದೇ ಪರಿಣಾಮ ಉಂಟಾಗಿಲ್ಲ. ಬಳ್ಳಾರಿ, ಸೊಂಡೂರು, ಚಿತ್ರದುರ್ಗ, ಹೊಸದುರ್ಗ ಸೇರಿದಂತೆ ತುಮಕೂರು ಜಿಲ್ಲೆಯ ತಿಪಟೂರು, ಗುಬ್ಬಿ ಮತ್ತು ಚಿ.ನಾ.ಹಳ್ಳಿ ತಾಲೂಕುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ನಿರಾತಂಕವಾಗಿ ಅಕ್ರಮ ಗಣಿಗಾರಿಕೆ ನಡೆಯುತ್ತಿದೆ.

ರಾಜ್ಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಅಕ್ರಮ ಗಣಿಗಾರಿಕೆ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ವ್ಯಾಪಕವಾದ ವಿರೋಧ ವ್ಯಕ್ತವಾಗಿದೆ. ಕಳೆದ 8 ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ಗಣಿಗಾರಿಕೆಯ ಕೂಸು ಹುಟ್ಟು ಹಾಕಿದ ಪಕ್ಷಗಳಿಗೆ ಈಗ ಲಾಭವಿಲ್ಲ. ಹಾಗಾಗಿ ಕೋಟಿ ಕೋಟಿ ಉಡುಗೊರೆ ಸಿಗುವ ಗಣಿಗಾರಿಕೆ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ವಿರೋಧ ವ್ಯಕ್ತಪಡಿಸುವ ಕನ್ನಡದ ಗಂಡುಗಳು ಹುಟ್ಟಿಲ್ಲ ಎಂಬ ನೋವು ಮನಸ್ಸಿನಲ್ಲಿದೆ. ಎಲ್ಲವನ್ನೂ ತಿಂದು ಮುಗಿಸಿರುವ ವಿರೋಧ ಪಕ್ಷಗಳು ಈ ಒಂದು ವಿಷಯವನ್ನೇ ಪ್ರಧಾನ ಮಾಡಿಕೊಂಡು ಈಗ ಪ್ರತಿಭಟನೆಗೆ ಮುಂದಾಗಿವೆ. ಕಳೆದ ವಾರ ನಡೆದ ವಿಧಾನ ಸಭಾ ಕಾರ್ಯಕಲಾಪಗಳ ಸಮಯವೆಲ್ಲಾ ಅದಕ್ಕಾಗಿಯೇ ವ್ಯಯವಾಗಿದೆ. ಆದರೆ ಸರಕಾರದ ಇಲಾಖೆಗಳು ಅಕ್ರಮ ಗಣಿಗಾರಿಕೆ ಕೂಡಲೇ ನಿಯಂತ್ರಿಸುವ ಬದಲು ಈ ಸಮಯದಲ್ಲೇ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ಅಕ್ರಮ ನಡೆಯಲು ಸಹಕಾರ ಮತ್ತು ಅವಕಾಶ ನೀಡುತ್ತಿವೆ. ಕಳೆದ ಗ್ರಾಮ ಪಂಚಾಯಿತಿ ಚುನಾವಣೆ ಸಮಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಇಡೀ ಆಡಳಿತ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆ ಚುನಾವಣೆಯ ಒತ್ತಡದಲ್ಲಿದ್ದರೆ ಸಮಯದ ಸದುಪಯೋಗ ಪಡಿಸಿಕೊಂಡ ಅದಿರುಕೋರರು ಹಗಲು ರಾತ್ರಿ ಎನ್ನದೇ ಕೋಟ್ಯಂತರ ರೂಪಾಯಿ ಅದಿರನ್ನು ಲೂಟಿ ಮಾಡಿದರು. ಸರಕಾರ ಮತ್ತು ಅಧಿಕಾರಿಗಳ ದೌರ್ಬಲ್ಯ ಅರಿತ ಇವರು ನಿತ್ಯ ಸಾವಿರಾರು ಲಾರಿಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಅದಿರನ್ನು ಸಾಗಿಸಿ ಹಣ ಮಾಡಿಕೊಂಡರು.

ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯ ಹೆದ್ದಾರಿ ಬದಿಯಲ್ಲೇ ಅದಿರು ಕ್ರಷಿಂಗ್

ಸರಕಾರಿ ಜಮೀನು, ರೈತರ ಪಟ್ಟಾ ಜಮೀನು ಹಾಗೂ ಸಾಮಾಜಿಕ ಅರಣ್ಯ ಮತ್ತು ಮೀಸಲು ಅರಣ್ಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರದೇಶಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಅದಿರನ್ನು ತೆಗೆದು ಸಂಗ್ರಹಿಸಿ ಮಧ್ಯರಾತ್ರಿ ವೇಳೆ ಅದಿರನ್ನು ನಿರಂತರವಾಗಿ ಸಾಗಿಸಲಾಗುತ್ತಿದೆ. ಈ ತರಹದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂಗ್ರಹಿಸಿದ ಕಬ್ಬಿಣದ ಅದಿರನ್ನು ತಿಪಟೂರು ತಾಲೂಕು ಹತ್ಯಾಳು ಗೇಟ್ ಬಳಿಯಿರುವ ರಸ್ತೆ ಬದಿಯ ಸ್ಟಾಕ್ ಯಾರ್ಡ್ ಹಾಗೂ ಜಯಂತಿ ಗ್ರಾಮದ ಬಳಿಯಿರುವ ಸ್ಟಾಕ್ ಯಾರ್ಡ್ ಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂಗ್ರಹಿಸಿ ಅಲ್ಲಿಯೇ ಬಹಿರಂಗವಾಗಿ ಸ್ಕ್ರೀನಿಂಗ್ ಮಾಡಿ ಸಾಗಿಸಲಾಗುತ್ತಿದೆ. ಈ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ವಿದ್ಯಮಾನಗಳು ತಿಪಟೂರು ತಾಲೂಕು ಆಡಳಿತಕ್ಕೆ ಗೊತ್ತಿದ್ದರೂ ಜಾಣ ಮೌನ ವಹಿಸಿದೆ.

ಈ ಅಕ್ರಮ ಗಣಿಗಾರಿಕೆ ಮತ್ತು ಸಂಗ್ರಹದ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಕಾನೂನಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಅವಕಾಶವಿಲ್ಲ. ಆದರೆ ಈ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಸಾರ್ವಜನಿಕರು ಹತ್ತಾರು ಬಾರಿ ತಾಲೂಕು ಮತ್ತು ಜಿಲ್ಲಾಡಳಿತಕ್ಕೆ ದೂರು ನೀಡಿದ್ದರೂ ಜಿಲ್ಲಾಧಿಕಾರಿಗಳು ಗಣನೆಗೆ ತೆಗೆದುಕೊಳ್ಳದೇ ನಿರ್ಲಿಪ್ತರಾಗಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಸ್ಥಳೀಯ ಅಧಿಕಾರಿಗಳಿಗೆ ತೆಪ್ಪಗಿರಲು ತಾಕೀತು ಮಾಡಿದ್ದಾರೆಂದು ಕೆಲವು ಅಧಿಕಾರಿಗಳು ತಮ್ಮ ಅಸಹಾಯಕತೆ ವ್ಯಕ್ತಪಡಿಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ನಿಯಮಗಳಿವೆ, ಕಾನೂನಿದೆ ಹಾಗೂ ಅಧಿಕಾರವಿದೆ ಆದರೆ ಉನ್ನತಾಧಿಕಾರಿಗಳ ಭಯದಿಂದ ಉಪಯೋಗಿಸುವಂತಿಲ್ಲ ಎಂಬ ಅಳಲು ತಾಲೂಕಿನ ಕೆಲ ಅಧಿಕಾರಿಗಳದ್ದು.

ಸರಕಾರಿ ಜಮೀನುಗಳು, ರೈತರ ಜಮೀನು ಹಾಗೂ ರಸ್ತೆ ಬದಿಯಲ್ಲೇ ಕಾನೂನುಬಾಹಿರವಾಗಿ ಕಬ್ಬಿಣದ ಅದಿರಿನ ಸ್ಟಾಕ್ ಯಾರ್ಡ್ ಗಳನ್ನು ಮಾಡಿಕೊಂಡು ರಾತ್ರೋರಾತ್ರಿ ಅಕ್ರಮ ಅದಿರನ್ನು ತಂದು ಸಂಗ್ರಹಿಸಿ ಸಾಗಾಣಿಕೆ ಮಾಡಲಾಗುತ್ತಿದೆ. ಇದು ಆಯಾ ಜಿಲ್ಲಾಡಳಿತ, ತಾಲೂಕು ಆಡಳಿತ, ಗಣಿ ಮತ್ತು ಭೂ ವಿಜ್ಞಾನ ಇಲಾಖೆ, ಮಾಲಿನ್ಯ ನಿಯಂತ್ರಣ ಮಂಡಳಿ ಹಾಗೂ ಪೊಲೀಸ್ ಇಲಾಖೆಗೆ ಗೊತ್ತಿರುವ ಬಹಿರಂಗ ಸತ್ಯ.

ಅಕ್ರಮ ಗಣಿಗಾರಿಕೆ ನಡೆಸುತ್ತಿರುವವರಿಗೆ, ಅರಣ್ಯವನ್ನು ರಾತ್ರಿ ವೇಳೆ ಲೂಟಿ ಮಾಡುವವರಿಗೆ ಗಣಿ ಮತ್ತು ಭೂ ವಿಜ್ಞಾನ ಇಲಾಖೆಯಿಂದ ಅದಿರು ಸಾಗಿಸುವ ಪರ್ಮಿಟ್ ಗಳು ಸುಲಭವಾಗಿ ಸಿಗುತ್ತಿರುವುದೇ ಪರಮಾಶ್ಚರ್ಯವಾಗಿದೆ ಎಂದರೆ ಇದನ್ನು ಜನಸಾಮಾನ್ಯರಿಂದ ನಿಯಂತ್ರಿಸಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವೇ? ಅಧಿಕಾರಿಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಅಕ್ರಮ ಗಣಿಗಾರಿಕೆಯವರ ಈ ವ್ಯವಹಾರದ ರಹಸ್ಯವನ್ನು ಕಂಡು ಹಿಡಿಯಲಾದೀತೆ ಎಂಬ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆ ಸಾರ್ವಜನಿಕ ವಲಯದಲ್ಲಿದೆ.

ಚಿ.ನಾ.ಹಳ್ಳಿಯ ತಾಲೂಕಿನ ಹೊನ್ನೆಬಾಗಿ ಗ್ರಾಮದ ಸರ್ವೇ ನಂ.130ರಲ್ಲಿನ ಅಬ್ಬಿಗೆ ಶ್ರೀಮಲ್ಲೇಶ್ವರ ದೇವಾಲಯದ ಸುತ್ತಾಮುತ್ತಲ 2. ಕಿ.ಮಿ. ವ್ಯಾಪ್ತಿಯ ಪ್ರದೇಶದಲ್ಲಿ ಗಣಿಗಾರಿಕೆಗೆ ಅವಕಾಶ ಕೊಡಬಾರದು ಎಂದು ಸಾರ್ವಜನಿಕರ ಒತ್ತಾಯಕ್ಕೆ ಮಣಿದ ಜಿಲ್ಲಾಧಿಕಾರಿ ಸೋಮಶೇಖರ್ 3.8.2008ರಂದು ಆದೇಶಿಸಿ ದೇವಾಲಯದ ವ್ಯಾಪ್ತಿಯ 200 ಮೀ. ವ್ಯಾಪ್ತಿಯ ಗಣಿಗಾರಿಕೆಯನ್ನು ರದ್ದುಪಡಿಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಆದರೆ ಪುರಾತನ ಹಿಂದೂ ದೇವಾಲಯ ಶ್ರೀ ಹತ್ಯಾಳು ನರಸಿಂಹಸ್ವಾಮಿ ದೇವಾಲಯದ ಬೆಟ್ಟದ ತಪ್ಪಲಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಇರುವ ಮೀಸಲು ಅರಣ್ಯ ಪ್ರದೇಶದ ವ್ಯಾಪ್ತಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಖಾಸಗಿ ಕಂಪನಿಯೊಂದು ನಿರಂತರವಾಗಿ ಗಣಿಗಾರಿಕೆ ನಡೆಸುತ್ತಾ ದೇವಾಲಯದ ಬೆಟ್ಟಕ್ಕೆ ಹಾನಿಯಾಗುವ ಸಂಭವವಿದ್ದರೂ ಜಾಣ ಮೌನ ವಹಿಸಿರುವುದು ಹಲವು ಅನುಮಾನಗಳಿಗೆ ಕಾರಣವಾಗಿದೆ.

1991 ರಿಂದ 2007 ರವರೆಗೆ ಶ್ರೀ ಹತ್ಯಾಳು ನರಸಿಂಹಸ್ವಾಮಿ ದೇವಾಲಯ ಹಾಗೂ ಅರಣ್ಯದ ವ್ಯಾಪ್ತಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಗಣಿಗಾರಿಕೆಗೆ ಅವಕಾಶ ನೀಡಬಾರದು ಎಂದು ಕಂದಾಯ ಇಲಾಖೆ, ಉಪವಿಭಾಗಾಧಿಕಾರಿಗಳು, ಅರಣ್ಯ ಇಲಾಖೆ ಪದೇ ಪದೇ ಪತ್ರ ವ್ಯವಹಾರ ನಡೆಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಆದರೆ ಈ ಅಕ್ರಮಗಳಿಗೆ ಪ್ರಮುಖ ಕಾರಣಕರ್ತರಾದ ಗಣಿ ಮತ್ತು ಭೂ ವಿಜ್ಞಾನ ಇಲಾಖೆ ಉಳ್ಳವರ ಪರ ವಕಾಲತ್ತು ವಹಿಸಿ ಗಣಿಗುತ್ತಿಗೆ ನೀಡುವ ಪ್ರಯತ್ನ ನಡೆಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಆ ನಂತರ ಗಣಿಗುತ್ತಿಗೆಯನ್ನು ರದ್ದುಪಡಿಸಲು ನಡೆದ ನಾನಾ ಪ್ರಯತ್ನಗಳಿಗೆ ಗಣಿ ಇಲಾಖೆ ಸೊಪ್ಪುಹಾಕದೇ ಅರಣ್ಯ ಹಾಗೂ ದೇವಾಲಯ ವ್ಯಾಪ್ತಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಅದಿರು ಲೂಟಿಗೆ ಪರೋಕ್ಷವಾಗಿ ಸಹಕಾರ ನೀಡಿದೆ

ಆದರೆ ಯಾರೂ ಈ ಕುರಿತು ಏನೂ ಮಾತನಾಡುತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ!.

Sunday, January 9, 2011

Race for Servival - Wildlife Conflict

It seems Human- Wildlife Conflict will never be resolved in this country

(The lonely nomadic Tusker which killed 8 human being in the surrounding of Tumkur and Hassan district was captured and deported to Madhumali forest...latest news is that he is now near to Bannerghatta national forest)

In recent years shrinking space and shortage of food is forcing these wild animals towards human populated areas. The friction is resulting in the loose of life and property.

(A Sheppard with his goat which survived the attack of Leopard and (Maya) leopard which attacked on two farmers and one Child. Later which was captured and deported to Tyavarkoppa of Shimoga)

The growing incidents of Human Animal Conflict in Tiptur Taluk and surrounding area reflects the failures of our policy makers, media, local leaders and conservationist. Since last 2years there were twenty five number of incidents of human wild life conflict which were reported officially. The lack of sensitiveness among media fueled the anger among the people when 5yr old child of Hullenahalli of Tiputr taluk was killed by the female leopard.

The administration has been compensating for the loss in terms of money but they are now finding it difficult to meet the rising demands for more monetary relief along with the capturing of animals and clearing of the thick vegetation of different Amritmahl kavl (grassland). Sensitizing & going for exclusivity of this issue in print media dimmed the thinking of local leaders and public, rather defending the nature and wild life.

There is need for drastic change in the attitude of local media persons in facilitating the process of wildlife conservation by spreading the awareness and bringing the facts before the people on various issues (Illegal mining, wrong policies, poaching wood logging and deforestation) and articulating it to the people at large for building public opinion. when it concerns the society at large so that the dilution of these issue has to be avoided.

Studies made in different regions of the country by various organization and naturalist shows that the changing land use patterns in the peripheries of protected areas viz, mining, wood logging, and Agricultural activity is affecting wild life habitat.

The reason like rapid and haphazard expanding economy, the high degree of of economic and social disparity which places unsustainable pressure is affecting the management of natural resources in adverse ways,...- allowing the privileged to get way with over exploitation both through legitimate activities which are encouraged by the state, and illegitimate ones by powerful vested interests which the state is incapable of tackling and forcing the under privileged to degrade their limited resource base..

(The Legitimate and illegitimate mining activity has pushed wild life out of the reserved forest to human habitat)

These pressure is influencing the movement pattern, habitat utilization and behavior of wild life to make their habitat near the human settlements like Amrith mahal Kavel or grasslands, Village forests and near by Lakes ultimately leading to the race for survival between man and wild life and led often encounter with human beings directly.

(Small India Palm Civet) (Jungle Cat(Felis chaus))
(Wild life cubs/Kittens/Puppies which are been captured and captived by village folks in their agricultural fields)

Maithreya Parisara Adhyayana Kendra, Tiptur has initiated awareness campaign in the wildlife conflicted area by creating awareness amongst people about Man-Animal Conflict and also actively helping Forest Department in the situation of crisis.

Maithreya has brought pamphlets along with department of forest about the steps to be followed whenever there is a man-leopard conflict in the region, which is based on the study of Ms. Vidya Athreya in Maharashtra. The Wild Life Matters Trust associate organization of Maithreya, has initiated its support by letter camping to various authorities and helping in spreading awareness in this region.

(Awareness leaflet and An Informal education to the wildlife affected area people by Maithreya Tiptur and Wild Life Matters Trust)